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Omnivore Digest 6/10/2024

·4439 words·21 mins
  1. Nuclear Energy’s Bottom Line - The Atlantic (223 words)
  2. Washington Post Shake-Up Renews Attention on U.K. Phone Hacking - The New York Times (195 words)
  3. How Liberals Talk About Children | The New Yorker (231 words)
  4. The Postal Service’s $40 Billion Overhaul Is Off to a Rough Start - WSJ (237 words)
  5. 🤯 Axios AM: Summer of never-before (187 words)
  6. Gen Z Never Learned to Read Cursive - The Atlantic (224 words)
  7. A System for Landing Your Dream Job (202 words)
  8. The Biggest Waste of Time in Life (186 words)
  9. The Next Crisis Will Start With Empty Office Buildings - The Atlantic (230 words)
  10. 🍋 Podcast Bubble Burst (162 words)
  11. Hubris, Revenge and a Breakup Brought Down Big Tech’s Proudest Ally - WSJ (215 words)
  12. 🟡 We hebben een serieus probleem (481 words)
  13. The simplest explanation isn’t always the correct or complete one 😵‍💫 (203 words)
  14. The Magic of Friction Reduction 🙏 (201 words)
  15. ‘Après moi, le déluge?’ Macron bets ‘oui’ (245 words)
  16. 🩺 Docs’ political force (203 words)
  17. June 9, 2024 (210 words)
  18. Don’t prove I’m right (184 words)
  19. A rare take on young love - The Atlantic (202 words)
  20. SIX at 6: The Opposite Is True, Man’s Search For Success, 99 Problems, Rest, What Not To Do, and The Little-Known Equations (253 words)
  21. Opinion | Progressive Elites and Their Sins - The New York Times (217 words)

Nuclear Energy’s Bottom Line - The Atlantic (223 words) #

In the article “Nuclear Energy’s Bottom Line,” Rogé Karma contends that despite the current exorbitant costs of building nuclear-power plants in the United States, the nation must rediscover affordable construction methods to meet its climate goals. Karma cites historical context and recent data to underscore the critical role of nuclear energy, pointing out that the Department of Energy estimates the U.S. must triple its nuclear output by 2050.

Jessica Lovering of the Good Energy Collective argues that previous cost increases were partly due to a lack of standardized reactor designs, unlike in countries like South Korea and France where such standards kept costs steady. Karma also notes that the halting of nuclear construction in the 1980s contributed to the industry’s current shortcomings due to the loss of an experienced workforce.

Contrary to some environmentalists’ focus on solar and wind, Karma highlights political and practical challenges such as the extensive land required and local opposition. Nuclear, he argues, uses significantly less land and garners bipartisan support, making it a more feasible solution politically. Karma concludes by expressing cautious optimism about reviving the nuclear industry through both traditional and innovative reactor designs, as supported by federal investments and policies.

Washington Post Shake-Up Renews Attention on U.K. Phone Hacking - The New York Times (195 words) #

According to Justin Scheck, Eshe Nelson, and Tariq Panja, the appointment of Will Lewis as publisher of The Washington Post has rekindled interest in the U.K. phone-hacking scandal. They note that Lewis, previously an editor at The Daily Telegraph and involved with News Corp during the scandal, is accused of covering up details to protect senior executives.

The authors report that Lewis allegedly deleted emails and overlooked critical evidence during his tenure at News Corp, which has led to renewed lawsuits allowing victims to press more allegations. Despite Lewis’s claims of transparency, some view his actions as protecting higher-ups rather than just cleaning up the mess.

Support for these claims includes court documents stating the deletion of emails and the disappearance of evidence. Additionally, critics argue that Lewis’s reorganization of The Post, which included demoting the executive editor Sally Buzbee, compromised journalistic ethics. These concerns were exacerbated by his controversial offer to an NPR reporter to trade stories for favorable coverage, an action viewed as a violation of newsroom norms.

How Liberals Talk About Children | The New Yorker (231 words) #

Jay Caspian Kang’s article “How Liberals Talk About Children” in The New Yorker focuses on how modern liberal discourse often frames children in terms of economic and existential risks rather than as sources of joy and mutual benefit. Kang explores this issue through the lens of Anastasia Berg and Rachel Wiseman’s book, What Are Children For, which investigates why many educated, financially comfortable women in the U.S. feel ambivalent about having children. According to Kang, the authors argue that financial and existential concerns are overemphasized, leading to a culture where children are viewed as burdens.

Berg and Wiseman gathered data through surveys and interviews, revealing that millennials, despite financial anxiety, have achieved notable economic recovery and often feel financially comfortable. They criticize the moral argument against having children due to potential suffering, highlighting its flawed logic by questioning its implications for poorer societies.

Kang summarizes Berg and Wiseman’s critique that the progressive discourse uses negative languages about children, avoiding the conversation about the joys and communal benefits of raising them. He contends this may reveal a deeper reluctance towards collectivism and societal responsibility among liberals. The book aims to challenge these narratives and encourage a more positive and balanced discussion about parenthood.

The Postal Service’s $40 Billion Overhaul Is Off to a Rough Start - WSJ (237 words) #

In “The Postal Service’s $40 Billion Overhaul Is Off to a Rough Start,” Esther Fung details the initial struggles of the U.S. Postal Service’s (USPS) ambitious modernization plan under Postmaster General Louis DeJoy. According to Fung, the new 1-million-square-foot mail-processing center near Atlanta quickly encountered operational issues, leading to significant delivery delays for Georgia residents. DeJoy’s 10-year modernization plan aims to reverse financial losses through new equipment, electric vehicles, and the consolidation of facilities, but the changes are not going smoothly. Fung highlights employees’ complaints about overwhelmed sorting machines, lack of training, and management missteps.

DeJoy asserts that delaying the overhaul is not an option, as the USPS risks running out of money in three to four years. He emphasizes the necessity of efficient operations to handle increased parcel volumes and compete with companies like FedEx and UPS. According to DeJoy, transforming USPS into a self-sustaining entity is crucial, given that it doesn’t receive tax dollars and instead relies on postage sales and services. Fung also notes criticisms from politicians and union leaders about the rapid, disruptive changes. Michael Kubayanda, chairman of the Postal Regulatory Commission, warns that persistent delivery delays could erode public trust.

🤯 Axios AM: Summer of never-before (187 words) #

Mike Allen argues that this summer will be a historic one, marking numerous unprecedented political and societal events. He points to significant moments such as the sentencing of a former president, Donald Trump, and his acceptance of a major party nomination despite being a felon. Similarly, Allen notes that President Biden, at age 81, will surpass Trump as the oldest nominee from a major party. This will be a summer full of “never-before” occurrences including a general-election presidential debate held before fall, the first wartime Israeli leader addressing Congress, and vast political shifts across Europe and in U.S. elections. Allen uses upcoming event dates, like Biden-Trump debates and European parliamentary elections, to substantiate his claims about this exceptional summer. Additionally, he employs polling data showing that the economy and inflation are the top voter concerns, not Trump’s conviction, to underline shifts in electoral dynamics. The article encapsulates a period fraught with rapid and significant changes, signaling a transformative summer.

Gen Z Never Learned to Read Cursive - The Atlantic (224 words) #

Drew Gilpin Faust argues in “Gen Z Never Learned to Read Cursive” that the decline of cursive literacy among younger generations poses significant challenges for interpreting historical documents and maintaining a connection to the past. Faust illustrates this through a classroom anecdote where most students could neither read nor write cursive, highlighting a broader trend resulting from the 2010 omission of cursive instruction in the Common Core standards. According to Faust, cursive was historically pivotal—once a privilege of the educated elite and later a widespread skill that symbolized identity and individuality. She cites that, despite cursive’s resurgence in some states due to nostalgic and cultural arguments, technological advancements and societal changes are rendering it obsolete.

Faust supports her claims with historical context and data, noting that by the 19th century, literacy had expanded dramatically, with penmanship becoming linked to personal expression. She references Tamara Plakins Thornton’s work on handwriting’s cultural evolution and describes instances where the inability to read cursive impacted her students’ research choices. Faust concludes that society’s growing dependence on digital devices over traditional handwriting may lead to a loss of direct engagement with historical texts, thereby weakening our connection to the past.

A System for Landing Your Dream Job (202 words) #

In “A System for Landing Your Dream Job,” Ben Meer offers seven strategic tips to secure a desirable job by emphasizing the critical role of effective management and well-structured job-hunting techniques. Meer underscores the importance of optimizing your resume by tailoring it to job descriptions and focusing on achievements, as detailed in his LinkedIn post. He advocates for early networking using resources like “The 2-Hour Job Search” to facilitate conversations with potential colleagues and include their insights in cover letters.

Meer highlights the 80/20 rule during interview preparations, focusing on frequently asked questions, and recommends the STAR framework to structure responses. He advises coming prepared with insightful questions that evaluate company culture and prospects. Writing thank-you notes post-interview is a tactic Meer suggests to leave a positive impression.

Meer also emphasizes negotiating various aspects of job offers beyond salary, and maintaining an organized job application tracker. He encourages annual market exploration to ensure continued career growth and alignment with personal values. Finally, Meer stresses that success in job hunting comes from a strategic, persistent approach rather than mere luck.

The Biggest Waste of Time in Life (186 words) #

In “The Biggest Waste of Time in Life,” Mark Manson contends that the most significant waste of time is asking for help when one doesn’t genuinely want it, and the second is giving help that isn’t desired. Manson suggests that both the asker and the helper are primarily seeking validation, not actual assistance. He urges readers to reflect deeply on their motives—do they seek help or attention, desire to assist, or crave validation?

To disrupt this cycle, Manson recommends halting efforts on those uninterested in genuine help and refraining from waiting for unwanted support. He endorses these shifts as small changes leading to profound breakthroughs. Manson substantiates his claims with anecdotal data and reader testimonials, such as Kirsty, who found success in coding despite many failures, and Elli, who discovered valuable lessons about herself and her team dynamics through failing at a new project. These personal stories illustrate the transformative power of embracing failure and authenticity in personal and professional growth.

The Next Crisis Will Start With Empty Office Buildings - The Atlantic (230 words) #

Dror Poleg argues that the next major economic crisis will stem from the increasing vacancy and declining value of commercial office real estate. He cites data showing U.S. office vacancy rates exceeding 20% for the first time in decades, with particular cities like San Francisco, Dallas, and Houston experiencing rates as high as 25%. Poleg highlights that actual office use is even lower, with attendance in the largest business districts below 50% of pre-COVID levels.

According to Poleg, this downturn will have far-reaching implications, affecting landlords, banks, municipal governments, and individual investment portfolios. Poleg notes that many commercial-property loans issued before the pandemic are now in jeopardy due to rising interest rates and devalued assets. For instance, major landlords have defaulted on billions of dollars in loans. Additionally, municipal governments face decreased property tax revenues, which could result in service cuts or increased taxes, leading to potential urban decline.

Poleg contends that cities must adapt by converting unused office spaces for other purposes and considering public-private partnerships to finance urban development. He underscores that federal and state intervention will be crucial, suggesting that this crisis is not only a challenge but also an opportunity to rethink urban living and economic patterns.

🍋 Podcast Bubble Burst (162 words) #

Short Squeez examines the burst of the podcast bubble, emphasizing the decline in the industry’s lucrative deals. According to the author, production companies previously secured $500,000 for eight to ten-episode series, exemplified by Joe Rogan’s $200 million Spotify deal in 2020. However, widespread podcast ventures have now reduced typical budgets to $150,000-$250,000, with fewer buyers. The author describes how these financial constraints have led to layoffs, reduction of episode counts, and difficulty in getting new show concepts approved. Despite the challenges, the author notes a shift with producers releasing shows independently and fostering mergers and diversification. This movement aims to mitigate the risks of relying heavily on a few major buyers, heralding a future with more self-financed content. Data underpinning these claims include historical budget comparisons and broader industry impact assessments.

Hubris, Revenge and a Breakup Brought Down Big Tech’s Proudest Ally - WSJ (215 words) #

Brody Mullins provides a detailed account of Joshua Wright’s high-profile downfall due to his personal and professional misconduct. Wright, a prominent antitrust consultant and former FTC commissioner, had extramarital affairs with multiple students from George Mason University, where he taught. Crucially, Wright allegedly used his influence to advance their careers, creating a power imbalance. According to Mullins, the unraveling began when Wright ended an affair with Elyse Dorsey in October 2021, prompting Dorsey to reveal their relationship in a Title IX complaint. This led to a cascade of disclosures and legal actions against Wright, including claims from other women.

Mullins demonstrates how the revelations jeopardized Wright’s career, costing him significant consulting contracts with tech giants like Google, Amazon, and Facebook, resulting in substantial financial losses. Mullins uses interviews, court filings, and public records to substantiate the claims, depicting a complex web of personal indiscretions and professional repercussions. Wright, who denies any wrongdoing, has filed defamation lawsuits, while the affected companies and institutions have distanced themselves from him. In this intricate narrative, Mullins portrays the dramatic fall of a once-influential figure in antitrust law.

🟡 We hebben een serieus probleem (481 words) #

In an article titled “🟡 We hebben een serieus probleem,” Semafor Flagship discusses numerous current global events.

France’s Next PM? French President Emmanuel Macron’s unexpected election call could benefit Jordan Bardella, leader of the far-right National Rally, conceivably making him the youngest-ever prime minister. Bardella, with extensive youth support, challenges Macron’s governance credibility.

Venezuela’s Opposing Lead Edmundo González, the opposition candidate, is outpacing President Nicolás Maduro in the polls by nearly double, though fears persist that Maduro may not concede, as discussed by Bloomberg.

Iran’s Predictable Elections Iran, following President Ebrahim Raisi’s death, has a pool of largely hardliner presidential candidates with Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf tipped to win. However, Qalibaf’s non-cleric status matters for succession dynamics.

AI’s Cybersecurity Role AI bots can now identify “zero-day” vulnerabilities in websites, greatly outperforming previous capabilities. This dual-edged capability raises questions about cybersecurity’s offensive and defensive future, as noted by the research team.

Russia’s BRICS Diplomacy Amid Western isolation, Russia courts economic ties with BRICS countries and plans independent cultural events to assert its self-reliance, a symbolic departure from needing Western approval.

Sudan’s Migration Crisis The UN reports that Sudan’s internal conflict could displace over 10 million people, contributing to dire humanitarian needs unmet by current aid.

China’s Residency Reforms The relaxation of Mao-era residency restrictions in Chinese cities could spur economic benefits by lowering migrant living costs, despite potential local government strains.

LVMH’s Succession In luxury fashion, LVMH prepares for executive turnover with Cécile Cabanis as deputy CFO, while founder Bernard Arnault’s children move into key roles, highlighting ongoing leadership transitions.

Sackler Prize Controversy Science laureates suggest renaming the Sackler Prize in Biophysics due to the Sackler family’s association with the opioid crisis, accepting the award but advocating for a name change.

End of Tennis’s Big Three Carlos Alcaraz’s French Open win signals a generational shift in men’s tennis, possibly closing the era dominated by Nadal, Federer, and Djokovic.

In the London Review of Substacks, Brian Potter’s “Plane Sailing” highlights WWII workforce shifts, while Ed West’s “Double Dutch” reflects on the unique linguistic challenges faced by the Dutch language. Shruti Rajagopalan’s “Polls Apart” critiques the accuracy of Indian election polling rooted in outdated census data.

Jen Smith and Max Tani promise insights from Cannes’ media summit, emphasizing industry trends and deals as key topics.

The simplest explanation isn’t always the correct or complete one 😵‍💫 (203 words) #

According to Sam Ro, the straightforward assumption that higher interest rates are only harmful to the economy is incomplete. Ro points out that while the Federal Reserve’s aggressive interest rate hikes aimed to slow down inflation by cooling the economy, the negative impacts have been less severe than many anticipated. Inflation rates have significantly decreased, and the economy shows signs of decelerating growth but not a recession. GDP growth forecasts were revised upwards for 2023 and 2024, contradicting earlier warnings of recession that did not materialize.

Ro uses data from various sources to support his claims. For example, the Wall Street Journal reported that interest income from government bonds potentially increased consumer spending, as seen from unexpected five-figure returns on 5% annual bonds. Research from JP Morgan suggests that higher rates may boost aggregate demand slightly. Overall, the data indicates that higher rates have contributed to increased interest income for households and businesses, positively affecting overall economic activity. Ro highlights the importance of considering a broader range of economic metrics, stressing that singular metrics should not be overemphasized when analyzing economic health.

The Magic of Friction Reduction 🙏 (201 words) #

Ali Abdaal emphasizes the concept of friction reduction in building new habits and improving productivity, drawing inspiration from James Clear’s “Atomic Habits.” According to Abdaal, by making desired actions easier and undesired actions harder, one can consistently integrate good habits into daily life. He illustrates this with examples from his own life, such as laying out running gear ahead of time to facilitate morning runs and keeping supplements next to his protein shake to make it simpler to remember to take them.

Abdaal shares how reducing friction helped him significantly increase his stretching routine by keeping a yoga mat in sight, highlighting that visible cues can drive behavior change. He encourages readers to identify areas in their lives where friction can be reduced to foster positive habits.

In supporting his arguments, Abdaal references personal anecdotes and practical applications, providing a relatable and hands-on perspective on the effectiveness of this strategy.

Lastly, Abdaal invites readers to reflect on their own lives and consider how they might implement similar changes, suggesting this approach can lead to better life choices and improved overall routines.

‘Après moi, le déluge?’ Macron bets ‘oui’ (245 words) #

According to John Authers, French President Emmanuel Macron faces significant risks as he calls for parliamentary elections due to the rise of the far-right National Rally. Authers explains that if Macron’s gamble fails, he may end up in a legislative “co-habitation” heavily influenced by Marine Le Pen’s party, which poses substantial political and financial risks for France.

Authers uses data to illustrate the economic implications, noting that the spread between French and German bond yields has widened since the eurozone crisis, reflecting market concerns about French financial stability. The French stock market has also underperformed compared to broader European indices.

Olivier Blanchard supports Macron’s decision, suggesting it could either reveal the National Rally’s incoherence or concentrate their governing period into two years rather than five. However, Authers warns that markets might react negatively to an ineffectual government.

In the UK, Authers highlights Prime Minister Rishi Sunak’s political struggles, exacerbated by Nigel Farage’s resurgence, which threatens the Conservative Party’s dominance. Authers suggests this unsettled political climate makes it difficult for markets to predict outcomes.

In the US, economic data remains mixed, complicating the Federal Reserve’s decisions. Authers notes that while certain indicators suggest cooling, robust employment numbers make the future uncertain for interest rate adjustments.

🩺 Docs’ political force (203 words) #

According to Maya Goldman and Tina Reed of Axios, the Supreme Court’s reversal of Roe v. Wade has incited Democratic-leaning doctors to mobilize against restrictive state abortion laws. They argue these laws endanger patient health and restrict medical practice. Goldman and Reed highlight this wave of activism, noting it mirrors past Republican activism against the ACA.

Goldman and Reed report that in Ohio, doctors successfully passed a ballot measure to protect reproductive rights in the state constitution, while in Texas, they’ve taken legal action against narrow abortion law exceptions. Ohio pediatrician Lauren Beene emphasizes the necessity for physicians to lead in defending reproductive rights.

The authors also mention that six Democratic doctors are running for House seats to address voters’ concerns on reproductive health and high healthcare costs. The potential shift in congressional composition could reshape conversations about abortion access, as per Wisconsin OB-GYN Kristin Lyerly. However, Goldman and Reed note that having an M.D. is not a guarantee of electoral success, citing the 2022 elections where only one out of four Democratic doctors won a House seat.

June 9, 2024 (210 words) #

Heather Cox Richardson details Russell Vought’s agenda to reshape the U.S. government by promoting a Christian nationalist framework. According to Richardson, Vought, who has been integral to Trump’s administration and is now leading the RNC platform committee, calls for extensive budget cuts to social programs and advocates for “Radical Constitutionalism” to centralize presidential power and diminish the administrative state.

Richardson highlights Vought’s historical claims, arguing that he mischaracterizes the growth of government under Woodrow Wilson and ignores the earlier, bipartisan development of progressive policies during Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency. She emphasizes that Roosevelt recognized the need for a robust government to protect individuals from industrial conglomerates, aligning with the principles of equality and individual rights established by the Founders.

Richardson underlines that Vought’s push for religious superiority contradicts James Madison’s foundational belief in the separation of church and state, which he argued was vital for preserving representative government and individual freedoms. This ideological shift, she posits, aims to undermine the modern administrative state and impose minority religious views contrary to the prevailing American values of equality and secular governance.

Don’t prove I’m right (184 words) #

According to The Daily Skimm, the Israeli military successfully rescued four hostages from a refugee camp in Gaza but faced international backlash for causing significant Palestinian casualties. The EU labeled the operation a massacre, stressing a need for alternative approaches like a ceasefire. This case is part of ongoing tensions, with significant political implications for Israeli leadership.

In U.S. politics, the Supreme Court will soon reveal rulings on critical abortion cases, which will shape the future accessibility of reproductive healthcare. During oral arguments, the court seemed divided, signifying unpredictable outcomes.

Jane Doe notes a rise in in-person dating, as singles increasingly prefer real-life connections over online dating apps. Eventbrite reports a 42% increase in singles event attendance from 2022 to 2023, with activities like game nights and sports events gaining popularity.

Additionally, The Daily Skimm offers readers recommendations for Father’s Day gifts and promotes various products, from therapy services to travel accessories, aiming to enhance readers’ lifestyles.

A rare take on young love - The Atlantic (202 words) #

Stephanie Bai, writing for The Atlantic, features Rina Li, a copy editor with eclectic cultural tastes, in this Sunday culture edition. Li praises Laurie Colwin’s The Lone Pilgrim, calling it “a revelation,” and recommends Chris Whitley’s “Dust Radio” for its “sweat-soaked, apocalyptic” quality. Li reflects on the honest portrayal of marriage in Prime Video’s Mr. & Mrs. Smith and appreciates Steven Millhauser’s writing for its “cool, clean prose.”

According to Bai, Li finds comfort in rereading Marilyn Hacker’s “Nearly a Valediction” and returns to Jack Gilbert’s poem “Alone.” Formerly beloved lip gloss has now lost its charm for her. Li’s current reads include Michael Parenti’s Blackshirts & Reds, which she values for revealing capitalism’s ties to fascism.

This edition highlights Li’s varied cultural engagements and thoughtful reflections on literature, music, and television, suggesting a deep appreciation for both the aesthetic and the substantive elements of art and entertainment.

SIX at 6: The Opposite Is True, Man’s Search For Success, 99 Problems, Rest, What Not To Do, and The Little-Known Equations (253 words) #

Billy Oppenheimer’s article, “SIX at 6: The Opposite Is True,” explores the concept that many common assumptions are incorrect and that their opposites are nearer to the truth. According to Eric Hoffer, people who achieve greatness often thrive on routine rather than exciting lives, citing examples like Socrates, Einstein, and Kant who flourished in mundane routines. Viktor Frankl illustrates that aiming directly at success often leads to failure; instead, success ensues as a byproduct of meaningful work, as exemplified by his unplanned success with Man’s Search For Meaning. Rick Rubin emphasizes simplicity, noting that reducing elements in a project can enhance its impact, seen in his production techniques with artists like Jay-Z.

Neuroscientist Dr. Nancy Andreasen’s research shows that the brain is highly active during rest, engaging in creative “random episodic silent thinking" (REST), challenging the notion that the brain is inactive when the body rests. Steve Jobs demonstrated the power of focusing on fewer products for greater success when he was reappointed at Apple, reversing the company’s decline by narrowing its product line. Lastly, Jobs’ daughter noted his mastery of understanding that profound results often come from seemingly contradictory approaches.

Oppenheimer uses these anecdotes and data to illustrate that, often, the opposite of what is commonly believed is actually true.

Opinion | Progressive Elites and Their Sins - The New York Times (217 words) #

David Brooks argues that the progressive movement has shifted from its working-class roots to the elite universities, creating a contradiction as these institutions become powerhouses of progressive ideals while embodying the privilege they ostensibly oppose. Brooks supports his claims with data, such as a May 2023 Harvard survey indicating that 65% of students identify as progressive, and a Washington Monthly report highlighting that Gaza protests occur mainly at elite colleges.

Brooks criticizes the phenomenon as “false consciousness,” where progressives at elite institutions struggle with their privileged status while claiming to fight against it. He references Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of “symbolic capitalists” to discuss how elites use beliefs and education to amass power. Brooks also touches on “elite overproduction,” leading to job scarcity for highly educated graduates in non-commercial sectors, fostering social unrest and cultural polarization.

He concludes by contemplating the prospects of social reform or potential pushback against the educated class, referencing Musa al-Gharbi’s critique that educated elites offer mere symbolic gestures rather than substantial change. According to al-Gharbi, this dynamic could fuel a right/left alliance against the educated elite. Brooks urges reform to avert such an uprising.